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معرفی کامل شرکت خودروسازی و صنایع سنگین اسکانیا (Scania)

معرفی کامل شرکت خودروسازی و صنایع سنگین اسکانیا (Scania)
تاریخ انتشار : سه شنبه ۱۴ آذر ۱۳۹۶
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اسکانیا، (به سوئدی: Scania) شرکت خودروسازی و صنایع سنگین سوئدی است که تولیدکننده انواع کامیون، اتوبوس، موتورهای دیزلی و کشتی است. دفتر مرکزی و کارخانه تولیدی اصلی این شرکت در شهر سودتلیا در ۳۰ کیلومتری جنوب استکهلم قرار دارد.

شرکت اسکانیا در سال ۱۹۰۰ میلادی در شهر مالمو سوئد تأسیس شد و در حال حاضر یک شرکت تابعه از گروه فولکس‌واگن به‌شمار می‌آید. سهام شرکت اسکانیا در بازار بورس اوراق بهادار استکهلم و بورس اوام‌اکس معامله می‌شود.
Scania-Vabis 2122
یکی از اولین محصولات شرکت اسکانیا با نام Scania-Vabis 2122 مدل 1929
Scania
پیشتر نامیده اسکانیا-وابیس
نوع شرکت با مسئولیت محدود
نماد معاملاتی اوام‌اکس: SCV B
صنعت صنعت خودروسازی
بنا نهاده در ۱۸۹۱ به نام وابیس
۱۹۱۱ به نام اسکانیا
بنیانگذاران گوستاو اریکسون
فیلیپ ورسن
محدودهٔ فعالیت سراسر جهان

افراد کلیدی : آندریاس رنشلر (رئیس هیئت مدیره)T هنریک هنریکسون(رئیس و مدیر عامل اجرایی)

محصولات : وسیله نقلیه تجاری موتور دیزل

خدمات خدمات مالی

درآمد ۹۷/۷۹۲ میلیارد کرون سوئد (۲۰۱۵)
سود ناخالص ۹/۶۴۱ میلیارد کرون سوئد (۲۰۱۵)
سود ۶/۷۵۳ میلیارد کرون سوئد (۲۰۱۵)
مجموع دارایی ۱۴۱/۲۶۵ میلیارد کرون سوئد (۲۰۱۵)
مجموع سهام ۳۷/۸۳۷ میلیارد کرون سوئد (۲۰۱۵)
کارکنان ۴۴٬۴۰۹ (۲۰۱۵)

شرکت مادر : گروه فولکس‌واگن
وب‌گاه : scania.com

تاریخچه (پیدایش)

فیلیپ ورسن در سال ۱۸۹۱ کارخانه‌ای برای ساخت واگن‌های ترابری ریلی تأسیس نمود. او پس از انجام مقدمات کار، نام این مجموعه را وابیس به معنی کارخانه واگن‌سازی نهاد که کارخانه تولیدی آن در منطقه سودتلیا قرار داشت.

از سوی دیگر در سال ۱۹۰۰ یک کارخانه دوچرخه‌سازی توسط گوستاو اریکسون در شهر صنعتی مالمو با نام اسکانیا تأسیس شد. این شرکت به تدریج تغییر جهت داد و به سمت تولید خودرو و کامیون رفت تا اینکه در سال ۱۹۱۱ دو کمپانی در هم ادغام شدند و شرکت اسکانیا-وابیس را پدیدآوردند.

نشان این شرکت یک اژدها در نظر گرفته شد که روی سر آن تاجی قرار داشت و از دهانش آتش بیرون می‌آمد. در آن سال‌ها خودروهای متفاوتی تولید شد و هم‌زمان تعدادی قایق، با موتور ۴ سیلندر ۱۲ اسب بخار نیز در خط تولید این کمپانی تولید شد. به تدریج تولیدات شرکت گسترش یافت و در کشورهای دانمارک و نروژ نیز خطوط تولید آن، دائر شد.
توسعه

اسکانیا-وابیس به زودی به سمت تولید اتوبوس ۲۴ نفره دماغ‌دار با تایر بسیار نازک، پیش رفت. کار بعدی شرکت، تولید کامیون‌های آتش‌نشانی با ۶۰ اسب بخار و سرعت ۴۰ کیلومتر در ساعت بود. اولین پیشرانه ۸ سیلندر شرکت اسکانیا در سال ۱۹۱۶ تولید شد که از الکل یا بنزین تغذیه می‌کرد. اما در اوایل سال‌های دهه ۱۹۲۰ سیاست شرکت، تمرکز بر تولید کامیون و اتوبوس بود.

در سال ۱۹۴۰ شرکت اسکانیا شاهد تغییرات مدیریتی وسیعی بود که باعث شد شرکت با تغییر بسیاری از راهکارها و برنامه‌ها و با جذب مهندسان و نیروهای خلاق و جوان، محصولات مدرن‌تر و مطلوب‌تری را عرضه کند و به این ترتیب رتبه محبوبیت خود را در بازار وسایل حمل و نقل عمومی بهبود قابل ملاحظه‌ای دهد.

پس از جنگ جهانی دوم

اما با شروع جنگ جهانی دوم، شرکت اسکانیا با کاهش تقاضا برای کامیون و اتوبوس‌های عمومی، ظرفیت خالی کارخانجات خود را صرف تولید محصولات نظامی کرد. با پایان جنگ، اسکانیا دوباره تولید محصولات اصلی خود را از سر گرفت و توانست در رقابت با شرکت ولوو به جایگاه مناسبی دست یابد. به طوری که تبدیل به یکی از بزرگترین شرکت‌های خودروساز سوئد تبدیل شد. در کنار موفقیت‌های محلی، اسکانیا همچنین موفق به حضور در بازارهای جهانی شد.

ادغام دوم

در سال ۱۹۶۹ اسکانیا برای بار دوم با شرکت بزرگ سوئدی گروه ساب ادغام شد و به این ترتیب ساب-اسکانیا راه‌اندازی شد. اما معروفیت و محبوبیت نام تجاری اسکانیا باعث شد که مدیریت مجموعه ادغام شده تصمیم به عرضه محصولات تولیدی با برند اسکانیا بگیرد.
دهه ۱۹۹۰

دهه ۱۹۹۰ را می‌توان دهه توسعه و تولید محصولات متنوع سوئدی در بازار وسایل حمل‌ونقل سنگین نامید.

وضعیت کنونی

امروزه کامیون‌ها و اتوبوس‌های اسکانیا بازارهای وسیعی در کشورهای مختلف جهان دارند. در حال حاضر گروه فولکس‌واگن با در اختیار داشتن ۷۰٫۹۴٪ درصد از سهام اسکانیا، بزرگترین سهام‌دار آن به‌شمار می‌آید.
Scania
در ایران

دو شرکت ایرانی شرکت عقاب‌افشان و ماموت نمایندگان ساخت و مونتاژ محصولات این شرکت در ایران هستند که به ترتیب به ساخت اتوبوس، موتور سنگین و تریلی تحت لیسانس این شرکت در ایران می‌پردازند.

ماموت

شرکت ماموت دیزل که زیر مجموعه مجتمع صنعتی ماموت است به عنوان نماینده انحصاری کامیون‌های اسکانیا در ایران فعالیت می‌کند.

عقاب افشان

از سال ۱۳۸۱ فروش و خط مونتاژ محصولات اسکانیا در ایران به عهده شرکت عقاب افشان بوده است.

در بهمن ۱۳۹۵ اسکانیا با عقاب افشان قراردادی برای تحویل ۱۳۵۰ دستگاه اتوبوس با عقاب افشان توافق همکاری امضا کرد. نخستین سری اتوبوس‌ها تا پایان سال ۲۰۱۷ میلادی در ناوگان حمل و نقل ایران به کار گرفته خواهند شد.
Scania
Scania AB, formerly AB Scania-Vabis, is a major Swedish automotive industry manufacturer of commercial vehicles – specifically heavy trucks and buses. It also manufactures diesel engines for heavy vehicles as well as marine and general industrial applications.

Scania AB was formed in 1911 through the merger of Södertälje-based Vabis and Malmö-based Maskinfabriks-aktiebolaget Scania. The company"s head office has been in Södertälje since 1912. Today, Scania has production facilities in Sweden, France, Netherlands, India, Argentina, Brazil, Poland, and Russia. In addition, there are assembly plants in ten countries in Africa, Asia and Europe. Scania"s sales and service organisation and finance companies are worldwide. In 2012, the company employed approximately 42,100 people around the world. Scania was listed on the NASDAQ OMX Stockholm stock exchange from 1996 to 2014.

Scania"s logo shows a griffin, from the coat of arms of the province of Scania (Swedish: Skåne).

History

AB Scania-Vabis was established in 1911 as the result of a merger between Södertälje-based Vabis and Malmö-based Maskinfabriks-aktiebolaget Scania. Vabis (Vagnfabriks Aktiebolaget i Södertelge) was established as a railway car manufacturer in 1891, while Maskinfabriks-aktiebolaget Scania was established as a bicycle manufacturer in 1900. Both companies had tried their luck at building automobiles, trucks and engines, but with varied success. In 1910, Maskinfabriks-aktiebolaget Scania had succeeded in constructing reliable vehicles, while Vabis was at the brink of closing down. An offer from Per Alfred Nordeman, managing director of Maskinfabriks-aktiebolaget Scania, to steel manufacturer Surahammars Bruk, owner of Vabis, led to an agreement in November 1910, and in 1911 the merger was a reality.

Development and production of engines and light vehicles were set to Södertälje, while trucks were manufactured in Malmö. The company"s logo was redesigned from Maskinfabriks-aktiebolaget Scania"s original logo with the head of a griffin, the coat of arms of the Swedish region Scania (Skåne), centered on a three-spoke bicycle chainset. Initially the headquarters were located in Malmö, but in 1912 they were moved to Södertälje.
First World War and 1920s

Because there were many inexpensive, imported cars in Sweden at the time, Scania-Vabis decided to build high-class, luxury cars, for instance the type III limousine from 1920 that had a top hat holder in the roof. Prince Carl of Sweden owned a 1913 Scania-Vabis 3S, a type which was fitted with in-car buttons so the passenger could communicate with the driver. Scania-Vabis also built two-seat sports cars (or "sportautomobil").

For the next few years the company"s profits stagnated, with around a third of their orders coming from abroad. The outbreak of the First World War, however, changed the company, with almost all output being diverted to the Swedish Army. By 1916, Scania-Vabis was making enough profit to invest in redeveloping both of their production facilities.

Following the war, in 1919, Scania decided to focus completely on building trucks, abandoning other outputs including cars and buses. However, they were hurt by the swamping of the market with decommissioned military vehicles from the war, and by 1921 the company was bankrupt.

After some economic difficulties in 1921, new capital came from Stockholms Enskilda Bank owned by the Wallenberg family, and Scania-Vabis became a solid and technically, high standing, company.

Denmark

Towards the end of 1913, the company established a subsidiary in Denmark. The following year the first Danish-built car, a four-seater Phaeton, was built at the company"s Frederiksberg factory in Copenhagen. In 1914, the factory produced Denmark"s first Scania-Vabis truck, and following this developed a V8 engine, one of the first in the world. In 1921, having sold around 175 trucks, and 75 cars, the Danish operation was closed down.

Norway

In 1917 an agreement was established with the newly formed Norwegian company Norsk Automobilfabrik A/S about production under license of Scania-Vabis cars and lorries. Production began in 1919, but was ended in 1921 after production of only 77 lorries, mostly built from Swedish produced parts.
1930s and 1940s

During the Second World War Scania produced a variety of military vehicles for the Swedish Army, including Stridsvagn m/41 light tanks produced under licence.

1950s and 1960s

During the 1950s, the company expanded its operations into new customer segments, becoming agents for the Willys Jeep and the Volkswagen Beetle, the latter being very profitable for Scania-Vabis. It also started to become a genuine competitor to Volvo with their new L71 Regent truck which was introduced in 1954.

During this period, Scania-Vabis expanded its dealer network and country-wide specialist workshop facilities. By the end of the 1950s, their market-share in Sweden was between 40 and 50%, and was achieving 70% in the heaviest truck sector – helped by the entrepreneurial efforts of their dealers into the haulier market.

Probably their largest impact was in export markets. Before 1950, exports accounted for only 10 percent of production output, but a decade later, exports were now at 50% of output. Beers in the Netherlands became a very important partner. Beers became official importers for Scania-Vabis in the Netherlands, and established a dealer network, along with training programmes for both mechanics and drivers. Beers also offered free twice-yearly overhauls of their customers vehicles, and offered a mobile service throughout the Netherlands with their custom-equipped service trucks. Due to Beers concerted efforts, Scania-Vabis market share in the country remained at a consistent 20% throughout this period. Scania-Vabis were to adopt the business model of Beers in their own overseas sales operations.

The 1960s saw Scania-Vabis expanding its production operations into overseas locations. Until now, all Scania-Vabis production had been carried out solely at Södertälje, but the 1960s saw the need to expand production overseas. Brazil was becoming a notable market for heavy trucks, and was also dependent on inter-urban buses, with particular requirement for Brazil"s mountainous roads which became nigh-on impassable at times. On 2 July 1957, Brazilian subsidiary Scania-Vabis do Brasil S.A. (today known as Scania Latin America Ltda.) was established and started assembling some vehicles themselves in 1958. On 29 May 1959, a new engine plant was inaugurated in the Ipiranga district of São Paulo, and from June 1960, Scania-Vabis do Brasil assembled all vehicles themselves. Scania-Vabis vehicles had already been assembled in Brazil by a local company called Vemag (Veículos e Máquinas Agrícolas S.A.) for several years. Scania-Vabis established its first full manufacturing plant outside Södertälje, by building a new facility in São Bernardo do Campo near São Paulo, which was opened on 8 December 1962, and this was to set the standard for Scania-Vabis international operations.

Closer to home, the recently formed European Economic Community (EEC) offered further opportunities. Based on their now strong presence in the Dutch markets, Scania-Vabis constructed a new plant in Zwolle, which was completed in 1964. This new Dutch facility provided Scania-Vabis with a stepping stone into the other five EEC countries, particularly the German and French markets.

In 1966, Scania-Vabis acquired ownership of a then valuable supplier – Be-Ge Karosserifabrik, who were based in Oskarshamn. Be-Ge had been making truck cabs since 1946, and had been supplying cabs not only to Scania-Vabis, but also to their Swedish competitors Volvo. It was normal practice for truck manufacturers to outsource production of cabs to independent bodybuilders, so their acquisition by Scania-Vabis seemed a good move. Be-Ge owner Bror Göthe Persson had also established an additional cab factory at Meppel.

Scania-Vabis continued their expansion of production facilities through acquisitions. In 1967, they acquired Katrineholm based coachwork company Svenska Karosseri Verkstäderna (SKV), and created a new subsidiary, Scania-Bussar. A year later, all bus production, along with R&D was moved to Katrineholm. Further production locations were added at Sibbhult and Falun, and Scania"s employee numbers rose, particularly at Södertälje, which was to help double the town"s population.

Scania-Vabis at some point in their history also manufactured trucks in Botswana, Brazil, South-Korea, Tanzania, the Netherlands, Zimbabwe and the United States.

For some time Daimler-Benz waged a "logo war" with Scania-Vabis, claiming a possible confusion between the Scania-Vabis "pedal crank" design featuring on Scania bicycles around 1900 and the Mercedes "three-pointed star". In 1968, Daimler-Benz won and the Scania-Vabis logo changed to a simple griffin"s head on a white background.

In February 1968, a new range of trucks was launched, and at the same time the company was rebranded as just Scania. In addition to Vabis disappearing from the name and a new logo, all current models received new model designations.

1970"s and 1980"s

In 1976, the argentinian industrial complex was launched. A few months later, on 10 September, the first gearbox outside of Sweden was manufactured and finally in December an L111 truck became the first Scania made in Argentina. Soon the plant specialised in the production of gearboxes, axles and differentials that equipped both the units produced in Tucumán and those built in Brazil.

Also in Argentina, in 1982 the Series 2 was launched as part of the "Scania Program", consisting of the T-112 and R-112 trucks with two cab versions and different options in engine and load capacity. In 1983, was launched the K112 made in Tucuman (like the rest models) for replace the BR-116.

In mid-1985 Scania entered the US market for the first time (aside from having sold 12,000 diesel engines installed in Mack trucks from 1962 until 1975), starting modestly with a goal of 200 trucks in all of 1987. Scania limited their marketing to the Northeast, where conditions resemble those in Europe more closely.

Many examples of Scania, Vabis and Scania-Vabis commercial and military vehicles can be seen at the Marcus Wallenberg-hallen (the Scania Museum) in Södertälje.
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