زندگینامه (بیوگرافی) علی عبدالله صالح رئیس جمهور کشته شده یمن

زندگینامه (بیوگرافی) علی عبدالله صالح رئیس جمهور کشته شده یمن
تاریخ انتشار : دوشنبه ۱۳ آذر ۱۳۹۶
علی عبدالله صالح (زاده ۲۱ مارس ۱۹۴۲-مرگ ۴ دسامبر ٢٠١٧) نظامی، سیاست‌مدار و رئیس‌جمهور یمن از سال ١٩٧٨ تا ۲۷ فوریه ۲۰۱۲ بود. علی عبدالله صالح که از سال ٢٠١۴ و از ابتدای جنگ ائتلاف سعودی علیه یمن با حوثی های شیعه هم پیمان شده بود در تاریخ ۴ دسامبر ٢٠١٧ پس از چرخش به سمت عربستان و چند روز درگیری با حوثی ها، حین فرار از صنعا به سوی مأرب کشته شد.
علی عبدالله صالح
زندگی‌نامه

علی عبدالله صالح در روستای بیت الأحمر در استان صنعا در کشور یمن به دنیا آمد. وی دوران ابتدایی را در روستای زادگاهش گذراند و در سال ۱۹۵۸ به نیروهای مسلح پیوست و در رشته نظامی تحصیل کرد و در سال ۱۹۶۰ با درجه افسری به ارتش یمن پیوست.

فعالیت‌ها

وی در سال‌های ۱۹۷۸ تا ۱۹۹۰ رئیس‌جمهور یمن شمالی بود.

علی عبدالله صالح در جریان حمله‌ای که روز ۳ ژوئن ۲۰۱۱ میلادی، به مسجد مجتمع ریاست جمهوری یمن انجام شد، دچار «سوختگی و جراحت» شد.

صالح در دوران انقلاب یمن در سال‌های دهه ۶۰ میلادی به دفاع از جمهوری و انقلاب پرداخت و در سال ۱۹۶۳ به درجه ستوان دومی رسید.

علی عبدالله در سال ۱۹۵۸ به ارتش یمن پیوست و در سال ۱۹۶۲ در طراحی و اجرای کودتا علیه شاه یمن دست داشت.

برخی از سمت‌های وی در ارتش یمن عبارتند از: فرمانده جوخه، فرمانده گردان زره‌پوش، فرمانده اردوگاه خالد ابن ولید.

عبدالله صالح تا قبل از ریاست جمهوری در پست‌هایی مثل؛ معاون فرمانده و رئیس ستاد کل پس از ترور رئیس‌جمهور یمن در سال ۱۹۷۸، دبیر کلی کنگره عمومی مردم در سال ۱۹۸۲، ریاست جمهوری کشور یمن شمالی از سال ۱۹۷۸ تا ۱۹۹۰.
برکناری

وی از سال ۱۹۹۰ به ریاست جمهوری یمن رسید و در سال ۲۰۱۱، زمانی که اعتراضات مردمی در خاورمیانه به یمن سرایت کرد به شدت به سرکوب معترضین پرداخت. در نهایت او در ژانویه ۲۰۱۲ و پس از تصویب قانون مصونیت قضایی اش از سوی پارلمان، صنعا را برای اهداف پزشکی به مقصد آمریکا ترک کرد.
علی عبدالله صالح
Ali Abdullah Saleh (Arabic: علي عبد الله صالح‎, ʿAlī ʿAbdullāh Ṣāliḥ; 21 March 1942 December 2017) was a Yemeni politician who rose to power following the assassination of President al-Ghashmi. He was elected President of North Yemen (the Yemen Arab Republic) on 17 July 1978 at the age of 36. Following the merger of North Yemen with South Yemen on 22 May 1990, President Saleh was sworn in as the new President. Long considered a moderate President, he oversaw his country"s development of deeper ties with Western powers, especially the United States, in its fight against terrorism. In 2011, in wake of the "Arab Spring" that spread across Yemen, Saleh"s time in office became more and more untenable, until eventually he was ousted as President of Yemen in 2012. He was succeeded in office by Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi.

More recently, Saleh had openly allied with the Houthis (Ansar Allah), leading to the Yemeni Civil War, in which a protest movement and a subsequent insurgency succeeded in capturing Yemen"s capital, Sana"a, causing President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi to resign and flee the country. In December 2017, he attempted to split with the Houthis and negotiate with the opposition, leading to internal fighting and finally the Houthis bombing his house on 4 December 2017, killing him. The Houthis said that it was the United Arab Emirates that dragged Saleh to "this humiliating fate."

Ali Abdullah Saleh was born on 21 March 1942 at Bait el-Ahmar village, from the Sanhan (سنحان) clan, whose territories lie some 20 kilometres southeast of the capital, Sana"a. Saleh belongs to Yemen"s largest tribal federation, the Hashid tribe.

Saleh"s cousin, Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar from the Al Ahmar family of Sanhan is often confused with the same-named leading family of the Hashid tribe, with which the Sanhan clan was ally. The Hashid tribe, in turn, belongs to the larger Yemeni parent group, the Himyar tribe. The clans Sanhan and Khawlan are said to be related.

Saleh joined the North Yemeni Armed Forces in 1958 as an infantry soldier, and was admitted to the North Yemen Military Academy in 1960. Three years later, in 1963, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Armoured Corps. He participated in the Nasserist-inspired Army Coup of 1962, which was instrumental in the removal of King Muhammad al-Badr and the establishment of the Yemen Arab Republic. During the North Yemen Civil War he served in the Tank Corps, attaining the rank of major by 1969. He received further training as a staff officer in the Higher Command and Staff Course in Iraq, between 1970 and 1971, and was promoted to lieutenant colonel. He became a full colonel in 1976 and was given command of a Mechanised Brigade. In 1977, the President of North Yemen, Ahmed bin Hussein al-Ghashmi, appointed him as military governor of Ta"izz.

After al-Ghashmi was assassinated on 24 June 1978, Colonel Saleh was appointed to be a member of the four-man provisional presidency council and deputy to the general staff commander. On 17 July 1978, Saleh was elected by the Parliament to be the President of the Yemen Arab Republic, while simultaneously holding the positions of chief of staff and commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

Governance in the Middle East and North Africa: A Handbook describes Saleh as being neither from a "sheikhly family" nor a "large or important tribe", but instead rising to power through "his own means", and creating a patronage system with his family at the top. His seven brothers were placed "in key positions", and more recently he has relied on "sons, daughters, sons-in-law and nephews". Beneath the positions occupied by his extended family, the president has "relied heavily on the loyalty" of two tribes, his own Sanhan tribe and the Hamdan San"a tribe of his mentor, the late president Ahmad al-Ghashmi. New York Times Middle Eastern correspondent Robert F. Worth describes Saleh as reaching an understanding with powerful feudal "big sheikhs" to become "part of a Mafia-style spoils system that substituted for governance". Worth accuses Saleh of exceeding the aggrandisement of other Middle Eastern strongmen by managing to "rake off tens of billions of dollars in public funds for himself and his family" despite the extreme poverty of his country.
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